The Detection of Public Policy in the Formation of Digital Citizenship

Zehra Çubukcu, Ahmet Çubukcu

Abstract


Online technologies have begun to penetrate society with many different applications and innovations since 1990s that the internet began to enter our lives. The internet has been regarded as one of the greatest technological discoveries of the century and it has also now evolved into a very different form with close to 30 years of its history. Until the early of 2000s, various public institutions, private enterprises, municipalities, universities and other organizations began to enforce themselves to digital platforms. In the first phase, the main goal was to display their content to the whole world which is called Web 1.0 technologies. The 2000s brought Web 2.0 technologies to internet users. This technology period that we are still in is a chance for internet users not only to reach specific content but also to develop, manage, update and delete those content interactively. The concept of digital citizenship has emerged as a result of these developments. We can define digital citizenship as briefly the digital tools, especially the internet, as a conscious, safe and effective use of the whole.

Public policies, which can be defined in the literature as "everything the state choose to do or not to do" (Dye,1984), are decisions taken by a group of actors for a particular public problem. Public policy is a process before anything else. Firstly, a plan for a specific problem or a request is made; then this plan is applied and checked in this process. In this sense, the extent to which digital citizenship is addressed by public institutions in Turkey as a public policy constitutes the main theme of this paper. Firstly, 9 dimensions of digital citizenship (digital access, digital commerce, digital communications, digital literacy, digital ethics, digital law, digital rights/responsibilities, digital health and digital security) handled by Ribble and his colleagues (Ribble et al., 2004) are going to be examined in the context of the policies of public institutions. Thus, it will be examined how public institutions contribute to Turkey's digital transformation and to what extent it contributes to digital citizenship.


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