Clues of Syntax And Semantic Interpretation in Arabic on The First Fiqhu'l-Lugha Books

muhammet mucahit asutay

Abstract


In this paper, syntax and Semantic interpretation will be investigated in three books which are prepared in the same way as the modern linguistics books in terms of the titles mentioned and the topics covered. These books which are written by contemporary authors are İbn Faris’ (d. 395h.) book al-Sahibi fi Fiqh al-lugha, as-Seâlibî’s (d. 469h.) book Fiqhu’l-Lugha va Sunan al-Arabiyya and ibn Jinni’s (d. 362h.) book al-Khasâis.

The most important feature of these books is to look at the language as a whole. Semantics, syntax, word structures, structural changes, structure and meaning, style, subtle headings in grammar and eloquence are the common themes discussed in these books.

Syntax and the semantic interpretation of this syntax have been included in the language studies since the first period language books. In this study, it will be tried to investigate how this is done in the first books of fiqhul-lugha which were written in the fourth century and the first half of the fifth century after al-hijra. How do the syntactic changes in Arabic sentences affect semantic interpretation? What are the meaning subtleties in sentences that seemingly have the same meaning but are composed of different sentence structures? These questions constitute the basic problem of our work. At first glance, There are some clues in these books such as repositioning words in sentence, to use feminine instead of masculine, to use masculine instead of feminine, to use multiple instead of singular, to use singular instead of multiple. Moving from these places, the data which can be subject to syntactic and semantic interpretation will be determined in all three books. The results obtained will be compiled and compared with the data about the syntactic and semantic interpretation that el-jurjâni (d. 471h.) put forward in his work Dala'il al-I'jaz and taken in detail.

It is also worth noting that to reach data that can be the basis for semantic interpretation, syntactic and semantic interpretation will be handled only in the linguistic context, independently from the other contexts. The reason for this is that the contexts are unlimited and it is difficult to set separate rules for each context. The principles to be obtained for a context-independent semantic interpretation will be more convenient and more suitable for semantic interpretation.


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